A study of comparative religion, history and the relationship of religion to civilization is an integral part of one’s education. This study is intended to predict the perceptions of parents, teachers, and managers about religious education in primary schools. Religion and belief give awareness to our values and norms. Religious education teaches you how to live a happy and fulfilling life. It helps individuals, families, and communities make better decisions to live a life of harmony and peace. Patrick (2006) stated that religious practice is beneficial for individuals, families, communities, and the entire world.
Students at an early age need to be taught about religion. It teaches students how to respond to others and teaches them the ethics of living a better lifestyle. Religion is an important part of history and society. Understanding religion and the world is crucial. It is also a great benefit to other school subjects such as liberty, civil, craft, and disciplines for supporting development. John et. al. (2003) stated in their report that the curriculum must cater to the child’s affective and aesthetic, spiritual, moral, and religious needs to help him or her reach his full potential. RE plays a crucial role in helping children develop spiritual and moral values as well as an awareness to God’s existence.
While religious education makes students more open-minded, it is possible when they are taught clear concepts and practices on how to apply these thoughts and to communicate with those in an adverse community. Teachers of Religious Education must have a deep understanding of content and pedagogy. They also need to be able to assess students’ abilities to provide effective instruction. Dinama et al. (2016)
Liagkis (2016) endorsed the idea that all instruction are set out in the curriculum chronologically, but it is up to religious education teachers to teach effective teaching to students so they can put their learning into practice.
Geoff Teece (2009) suggested an article about learning about religion and learning through religion or religious education. The researcher stated that there is not enough clarity about what learning and religion actually means. Researcher also suggested that religion can be understood using a second order explanation frame work. This refers to the study of religion, such as mythology and rituals. The education system was concerned about religious education and religious instruction.
Gardner (1980), a Gardner scholar, suggested that students should not be made to follow any particular religion but instead learn about the lives and events of people who practice different religions. After this solution, the question is: Is it right to raise students with their beliefs? Is it better to follow the established style and not go against the grain? Gardner (1993) & McLaughlin & Hare (94).
In 1997, Leahy & Laura argued that religion does not have to be taught in a rigid environment. To enhance knowledge, religious concepts can be integrated into other subjects (P.329).
Leahy (1998) argued that parents should be allowed to decide about their child’s religious education. She denies it, however, as it would harm the rights of other religious groups. It will also create social inequalities.
John M.Hull says that schools have a role to play in helping students to be informed and thoughtful citizens in a pluralistic society. A society that includes multiple religions is more likely to require a thoughtful study of religion. (1984, p. (1984, p.
Although standards like admiration, acceptance and kindness are important and have been for a long time, a new public is now required to better understand complex and global problems and the possible solutions. (Nord & Haynes 1998, p. 36).
Ethical reflection helps young people to understand that toleration of others is not enough. A global, interconnected world requires harmony by all those whose outcomes or futures are intertwined. They need to be ready to change, not only personally but collectively as well as politically. (Freiler, 2009, p.15)
Susan D. Holloway’s article, “The Role Of Religious Beliefs In Early Childhood Education: Christian And Buddhist Preschools In Japan”, is by Susan D. Holloway. In western writing, the Japanese are referred to as non-religious. However, the Japanese are often compared with Americans for their faithfulness in conflict. The Japanese are more ready to meet the Shinto doctrine at the beginning and marriage, while the Buddhism stands with silence/external repose through, in spite of circumstances that work against the discernible philosophical contribution of Buddhism and Christianity.
- The study’s objectives:
- To determine the perception of teachers about religious teaching as an element of education.
- To determine the role of teachers in character development for children.
- To determine the perception of parents about religious teaching.
- To examine the role of school management in teaching religious subjects within curriculum.
Methodology for the Study:
This study was conducted using a quantitative research design. As a research tool, questionnaires were used in this study. Questionnaires are a very popular tool in the educational research field. They can be used to investigate opinions, attitudes, and preferences.
The popular and important technique of questionnaires is used extensively to examine attitudes, perceptions, and preferences in educational research. Muijs (2004), Reid (2006)
Oppenheim (1992, 100) describes questionnaires as “an important instrument of research and a tool to collect data.” It’s a collection of questions that have been arranged in a specific order according to carefully selected rules.
[Creswell (2008) and Cohen et al. (2007), Raid (2006)] have all classified questionnaires information because there are three types data that can be collected on respondents using questionnaires: Factual, behavioral, and attitudinal. Factual questions cover demographic characteristics. Behavioral questions allow for the investigation of actions, habits and experiences. Attitudinal questions provide information about beliefs, values, opinions, and attitudes. This study uses two elements of the above categories: attitudinal and factual questions.
For each group of respondents, three questionnaires were created. The study’s respondents were parents, teachers, and managers from primary schools in Karachi. Each category received 10 statements. After the pilot study, questionnaires were completed in 30-40 minutes. In the questionnaires, closed-ended statements were used. Respondents were asked to express their views using selected rubrics from Likert Scale (Strongly agree, Agree to some extent Disagree and Strongly disagree).
Pilot testing Questionnaires
Oppenheim (1992, 48) stated that “everything should be piloted about the questionnaire; nothing should be exempted, not even typeface or quality of the paper.” Pilot testing of the questionnaires was conducted with 50 participants (20 parents, teachers and 10 managers). Pilot testing of the questionnaires was done to verify the layout, cater for language difficulties, and check the instructions to improve the validity and reliability of the questionnaires. Pilot testing provided clarity on statements regarding the validity, layout, instructions, and layout.
This study included teachers, parents, and school administrators from primary schools in Karachi, Pakistan. The sample was chosen district-wise. There are six districts in Karachi: Malir Karachi (West Karachi), Malir Karachi (Central Karachi), Malir Karachi (South Karachi), Malir Karachi (West Karachi) and Malir Karachi. The convenient quota sampling method was used to select 4 districts, including East Karachi (South Karachi), Malir Karachi (Malir Karachi) and Korangi Karachi. This study required 200 samples. Each district was to receive 50 samples. To obtain the desired sample, primary schools were chosen by searching online and establishing communication with all concerned authorities to ask for their cooperation in fulfilling research needs.
Data collection procedure
To maximize the return rate, researcher visited each school district by visiting 250 participants. 30 of 250 respondents did not return questionnaires. 220 participants completed questionnaires in time. 20 questionnaires were rejected due to incomplete responses. Finally, the researcher was able to obtain the desired sample size of 200 from 250. The remaining questionnaire responses were 40 (principals and wise principals), 100 teachers, and 60 parents. In each district, however, there were 10 (principals and wise principals), 25 teachers, and 15 parents.
SPSS version 21 was used to perform data analysis. To enter data into SPSS, 5-Likert scale answers were converted to numeric scales 1-5. SPSS was used to calculate the frequency and percentages. The result of the calculation is displayed through graphs that show frequencies and percentages for each category.