Thu. May 30th, 2024
  1. Transmission System

This motion is transferred to the wheels of the vehicle to create their rotary motion. The vehicle can move because of its rotary motion.

There are many parts to the transmission system. To be more specific, these race car parts include the clutch, gearbox, and propeller shaft.


The ends of the axle are where the road wheels are located. These parts transmit the motion. Each part of the transmission system has its function.


  • The crankshaft is located next to the clutch, which is part of the transmission system. It allows the transmission of rotary motion from one shaft to another shaft “at will.”
  • The engine should not be connected with road wheels when it starts
  • Second, the motion must be smooth so that passengers do not feel uncomfortable and its mechanism does not become stale.
  • The smooth transmission of goods is crucial in vehicles that are used to transport them.

    b.  Gearbox

  • The transmission system’s component next to the clutch is the gearbox. The gearbox has a gear train that provides different gear ratios. These ratios determine the rotation speed of the output shaft from the gearbox.
  • The torque transmitted between the wheels and the road creates a propulsion force (or tractive effort). A large tractive effort is needed to start from rest.
  • This requires the addition of significant ‘leverage’ between the engine’ and the wheels to ensure that the engine’s nearly constant torque generates the high tractive effort.
  • Different ratios of gears in the gearbox may provide the necessary tractive effort to overcome resistance encountered by the automobile under different conditions.
  • The output of the gearbox is transmitted to the propeller shaft. This axle can be located in the rear, front, or both. In some cases, the output of the gearbox may go to both the front and rear axles.
  • The output of the gearbox comes in the form of a rotary motion of the shaft and is then transferred to the axle.

    c.  Differential

  • The next component in the transmission system is the differential. The propeller shaft’s motion is fed to the diff which rotates it 90 degrees. This is important because the axle is 90 degrees from the propeller shaft.
  • This function is accomplished with the aid of a pinion or a gear. The differential also serves an important function: it reduces the speed of the inner wheels while simultaneously increasing the speed of the outer wheels.
  • This is necessary when the vehicle is traveling on a curve. The outer wheels must travel a larger radius than the inner ones when traveling on a curve.
  • All four wheels must be able to travel together as the automobile will move as one unit.
  • The outer wheels must travel greater distances while the inner wheels should travel less.
  • The difference in speed between inner and outer wheels is therefore necessary. This is done by the differential using the sun- and planet gear systems.


  • The next component in the transmission system is the axle. The axle that receives power from the engine’s engine is called the ‘live axle’. It has two halves.
  • Road wheels are attached to the ends of the axle. These road wheels come in direct contact with road surfaces. The axle is located above the body of the automobile.
  • It also supports the vehicle’s weight. It transmits motion to road wheels.
  1. The Body.
  • Except for certain applications, the use of a separate frame to attach the body structure to is almost non-existent.
  • Heavy vehicles often use “sub-frames” of simple construction, to which the engine or gearbox are attached.
  • To isolate engine vibrations, the sub-frame is attached to the mainframe using rubber connections.
  • Most vehicles are made from integral materials due to developments in spot welding techniques and sheet pressing techniques.
  • This makes the vehicle lightweight and compact. It also reduces its cost. Some intermediate designs use a lightweight chassis and a pressed-steel body.

In such designs, the light chassis is strengthened with a platform made from sheet steel. The automobile also includes control systems, auxiliaries, and other basic components.

Control systems are vital in automobiles as they control the vehicle’s motion. These systems include:

  a. Steering system.

  • While the automobile is moving, it may need to travel a circular route. If the path is not straight, it must be turned around.
  • Other situations may also arise where the road is turning to the left or right. In these cases, an automobile will need to turn to the left or right.
  • The steering mechanism allows the vehicle to turn left or right, or along a curved path.
  • The steering system must be accurate because the vehicle should follow the path exactly.

  b.Breaking system.

  • This reduces the vehicle’s speed and allows it to stop when needed. It is just as important to bring an automobile to a halt as it is to move.
  • We would love to stop once we reach our destination. Therefore, the vehicle should be parked.
  • There may also be an emergency, and the vehicle may need to stop or slow down. It is important to control the vehicle’s motion during such situations.

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By admin